Pranava and Kala

Q) How many letters are present in “Om”kara?

A) 8 – A, U, Ma, Bindu, Nada, Ghosha, Shantha and Atishantha.

Q) What are the forms of Sri Hari that emanate from these 8 letters?

A) Vishva, Taijasa, Prajna, Turiya, Atma, Antaratma, Paramatma and Jnanatma, respectively.

Q) What are the forms of the Lord corresponding to the 50 letters from “A” to “La”?

A) aja, aananda, indra, iisha, ugra, uurja, rutambhara, ruugha, lrusha, lruushi, ekatma, aira, oojabhruta, ourasa, amta, ardhagardha (aha), kapila, khapati, garudaasana, gharma, nasara, chaarvanga, cchandogamya, janardana, jjatitari, naama, tanki, ttalaka, daraka, ddari, Naatma, thara, tthaba, dhandi, ddhanvi, namya, para, phali, bali, bhaga, manu, yajna, rama, lakshmipati, vara, shantha samvit, sshadguna, saratma, hamsa, LaLuka, narasimha (ksha).

Q) What is meant by creation of time?

A) Time is eternal. But the Lord makes is possible for us to count it. This itself constitutes creation of time.

Q) Explain the duration of the various Yugas.


Kruta (Satya) yuga – 17,28,000 human years

Treta yuga – 12,96,000 human years

Dvapara yuga – 8,64,000 human years

Kali – 4,32,000 human years

Total – 43,20,000 human years

This is equal to 12,000 years from the point of view of Devatas. The 4 yugas together constitute a Maha yuga. 1000 such Maha yugas constitute 12 hours of Lord Brahma. This is 432 crore years. The same is the duration of the night of Brahma. One day of Brahma therefore is equal to 864 crore years. 360 such days equals one year of Brahma. The duration of one Brahma is 100 such years which is equal to 31104000 crore human years.

Q) How many Manvantaras are there? How long do the “Manus” rule?

A) There are 14 manvantaras. The Manus are Svayambhuva, Svarochisha, Uttama, Tapasa, Raivata, Chakshusha, Vaivasvata, Savarni, Daksha Savarni, Brahma Savarni, Dharma Savarni, Rudra Savarni, Indra Savarni and Deva Savarni. The total rule of the 14 manus lasts 12 hours of Lord Brahma – 432 crore human years. Each Manu rules 71 Maha yugas. Hence 14 x 71 = 994 years. The remaining 6 years is the intermediary period.

From a human time perspective, each Manu rules for 30 crore, 85 lakhs, 71 thousand, 428 years, 6 months, 25 days, 17 hours and 21 ghalige (including the intermediary period).

Q) What forms of the Lord should be meditated upon during the different portions of a day?


Early morning – Gadapani Keshava

Sunrise – Venugopala Krishna

Morning – Sri Narayana

Noon – Sri Vishnu

Till Evening – Dhanurdhari Madhusudana

Evening – Madhava

Beginning of night – Hrishikesha

Late evening – Padmanabha

Late night – Srivatsa

Q) What are the 7 divisions of time in a day? What forms of the Lord needs to be meditated during these times?


Arunodaya (dawn) – Pradyumna

Suryodaya (sunrise) – Vasudeva

Morning – Varaha

Noon – Narayana

Afternon – Aniruddha

Evening – Narasimha

Night – Samkarshana

Q) How is human life divided? What forms of the Lord control us during the various divisions?

A) Three divisions. For this purpose, the total human age is considered to be 116 years. The first division is from 0-24 years and “Vasus” rule this period. Pradyumna is the Lord. The second division is from 25-68 years and “Rudras” rule this period. Samkarshana is the Lord. The third period is from 69 – 116 years and “Adityas” rule during this time. Vasudeva is the Lord.

Q) How long is 100 years of Brahma corresponding to the Supreme Lord.

A) Notionally, it is equal to 1 minute.

2 thoughts on “Pranava and Kala

  1. i´M from Spain and would like to ask you what means the form of the Lord called NAATMA. I will be delighted to receive an answer from you. Thank you in advance.

    1. Hello, I am not the owner of this blog, stumbled across this interesting piece of blog randomly while searching for Hindu gradation of Time. And addressing your question, do you mean Aatma or is the word Na-Atma? Na in sanskrit stands for negation(na pashuhu= not animals, pashuhu = animal), so as far as i know, the word NAATMA, stands for “not aatma” (aatma= soul, naatma= not soul).

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