The Significance of Daana

Introduction:

dAna is one of the important constituents of dharma acharana prescribed by our shAstras.  Be it the shrutis, smritis, puranas, itihasas or later day shAstra granthas, all of them have given great importance to dAna. dAna fetches immense puNya and destroys great sins.

Out of the many karmas suggested in the shAstras such as yaga, homa, upavasa, tapas, adhyayana and so on, dAna is also an important karma. Especially in kali yuga, dAna is most needed since it is the easiest way to burn pApa and acquire puNya.

Our elders have rightly identified that a man’s hands are adorned by dAna, and not by golden bangles.

“dAnEna paniH na tu kaNkaNEna”

dAna for humans:

Once, a group of dEvatas, asuras and mAnavas approached brahma and requested him for granting knowledge on what dharma to follow.

brahma advised all three of them to perform “da”. Since dEvatas are always immersed in bhOga, enjoyment of pleasures, he asked them to practice “dama” or control of senses. Asuras are always inclined towards cruelty to others. Hence brahma asked them to practice “daya” or kindness.

human beings are always full of lObha or greed. To give up something is unnatural. Hence brahma asked humans to practice dAna. Thus dAna came about as a great tapas and prayaschitta sadhana for humans.

dAna under any circumstance:

shAstra ascribes such great merit to dAna that irrespective of how it is done, the donor still gets puNya.

a) shraddhayA dEyam – one should perform dAna with full shraddhA or devotion. One must do it with the conviction that it is meritorious since it is prescribed by shAstra.

b) ashraddhayA dEyam – one must give even if one doesn’t have conviction. dAna is the activity and shraddha is its constituent. Just because one lacks a constituent, the activity itself cannot be given up.

c) shriyA dEyam – one should give dAna with a completely pleasant mind. One must give as much as possible.

d) hriyA dEyam – even if one doesn’t have the generosity to give dAna, he should do it at least looking at others who are doing so, even if with a sense of competition or guilt.

e) bhiyA dEyam – it is fine even if one gives dAna due to fear of naraka and poverty that may strike if such a dharmic activity is not done.

f) samvidA dEyam – one should do with good knowledge of what actually dAna is. He should do it with the knowledge that it is actually the paramatma inside the donee who is actually accepting our humble offering. We should do it with the prayer that paramatma should become pleased with our dAna.

The hierarchy of dAna:

There are 3 main categories of dAna – satvika, rajasica and tamasica.

That dAna which is done with belief and with a sense of duty; that which is done in an auspicious place and at an appropriate time; that which is done without a sense of expectation (from the receiver) and given to a deserving person – such a dAna is said to be satvika.

dAna which is done with some expectation in return, or that which is done in order to obtain swarga or comforts; that dAna which is done from wealth acquired through dubious means – such dAna is said to be rajasica

dAna which is done at inappropriate places and times; that which is given to non-deserving receivers; that which is done without following any procedure or by insulting the receiver – such dAna is said to be tamasica.

Another classification of dAna is in terms of uttama, madhyama and adhama

dAna which exceeds ones capacity is uttama (best)

dAna which matches ones capacity is madhyama (par)

dAna which falls short of ones capacity is adhama (below par)

The six attributes of dAna:

There are six attributes of dAna and the same has been highlighted very well in the Mahabharata, Anushasana Parva.

dAtA pratigruhItA cha dEyaM sOpakramaM tathA |
dEshakAlau cha yattvEtaddAnaM shaDguNamuchyatE ||

1) dAtA – or giver. The person performing the dAna, if he is clean, of good character and with devotion to Lord and full of conviction – such a giver is the best.

2) pratigruhItA – or receiver. One who is from a good family, is well educated (in the shastras), performs dharmic duty without fail and has a good character – such a person is the best pratigruhItA

3) dEya – or that which is being given. The substance which is being given as dAna should have been acquired through dharmic means. Stolen property, illegally acquired material, that which has been gained by cheating or troubling many others – such dEya are to be avoided as they bring no merit.

4) upakrama – or state of the substance. One should always perform dAna of that which is very dear to self.  Giving away what is precious brings great hita and puNya to the giver.

5) dEsha – or location. dAna which is performed in teertha kshetras, on the banks of rivers, in holy cities and in places where satvik people have resided is best.

6) kAla – sharad and vasanta rutus, vaishaka, karthika and magha mAsas, shukla paksha, pUrnima and the time of eclipses – these are most appropriate for dAna.

The relative merits of dAna:

Like mentioned earlier, the puNya obtained by dAna is proportional to one’s capacity to give away. Vishnu rahasya explains this with a beautiful example.

If three people who earn 10, 100 and 1000 rupees respectively give dAna of 1, 10 and 100 rupees, then the puNya earned by all three is same. However, if the person earning 100 gives 5 while the one earning 1000 gives 10, then the person giving 5 earns more puNya even though the other person donated double the amount. The amount of dAna, therefore, should always be measured against one’s own capacity and not against what others give.

Exigencies:

If a person is in great poverty (mahA dAridrya), then there is no pApa if he does not perform dAna.

The various dAnas:

a) anna dAna – is one of the most auspicious dAnas. This is one category of dAna where the recipient could be any person (no special qualification required). Anyone who is hungry is a satpAtra. anna dAna destroys many sins.

b) suvarna dAna – suvarna dAna brings great pleasure to devatas. It fulfills all desires of the giver.

c) gO dAna – the dAna of a cow gives thousands of years of swarga to the giver. It also ensures great prosperity to the lineage of the giver.

d) bhU dAna – the donation of land is extremely auspicious. It bestows long life, health and immense prosperity.

e) kanyA dAna – the dAna of a kanya to a suitable groom ensures one’s own lineage grows prosperously.

f) vidyA dAna – one who teaches a student gains great intelligence, confidence and retention ability.

g) tila dAna – one who donates tila (sesame) burns away numerous of his sins. He gets the puNya of having performed the agnishTOma yAga.

h) deepa dAna – donating deepa brings immense knowledge.

Many other dAnas are prescribed in the shAshtras, all of which have their own merits. Some other important dAnas are

Ajya dAna, vastra dAna, dhAnya dAna, lavaNa dAna, pustaka dAna, saligrama dAna, madhu dAna, ksheera dAna, phala dAna, kumbha dAna, ashwa dAna and so on.

shrI krishnArpaNamastu

References:

1) dAnada vidhi vidAnagalu – a book in Kannada by shrI rAma viTTalachArya, tattva samshodhana samsat
2) A history of Dharmashastra – volumes II and III – by shrI panduranga vAmana kAne
3) Srimadbhagavadgita – chapter 17
4) mahAbhArata – anushAsana parva
5) vishnu rahasya – chapter 38

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 13: Part 5

  • 81) That asura of evil mind tried to eat it (the arms of the Lord); His mouth, teeth and lips got broken and he suffocated; His body was split into two and he fell down dead; Brahma, Rudra, Indra, Surya and all the other devatas sang praises of Lord Krishna
  • 82) A son of Maya, by the name of Vyoma, had obtained extreme longevity due to the boon of Brahma; He caught all the gopalakas and jailed them inside a cave; Krishna, the Lord of Sri, killed him like an animal and brought all of them out of the cave
  • 83) In this way, when Lord Krishna, the Lord of all worlds and the One with limitless capabilities was living in gOkula performing unique deeds which none else could do, Sage Narada went to Kamsa and informed him that whatever vasudEva had done earlier was a part of devata karya.
  • 84) Upon hearing this, Kamsa, who was always into cruel acts, got up with immense anger and immediately imprisoned vasudEva along with devaki. He then sent Akroora in a chariot to bring Lord Krishna, along with Balarama and the other gopas.
  • 85) Akroora was a deva gandharva by name kishora who had taken avatara to perform special seva of Lord Hari. He had the special amsha of swayambhuva manu in him. IN addition, he also had the avesha of brahma and was a great scholar.
  • 86) He, who always used to be engaged in excellent and worshipful activities, was born in the vrishni lineage as Akroora. He was the minister of Kamsa. Upon hearing Kamsa’s order, he became extremely delighted at the prospect of getting to see Lord Krishna, and felt immensely satisfied.
  • 87) Akroora accepted the excellent chariot given by Kamsa and proceeded towards gokula, while always thinking of the lotus-like feet of bhagavanta that are worshipped by even brahma, during the journey. As he saw the earth embossed by the foot-imprints of the Lord (at gokula) from far itself, he started dancing with joy!
  • 88) Akroora enjoyed that pious place, by rolling on it with great joy, knowing that the dust and earth over there was significant as they had obtained contact with the Lord’s form, the dust being capable of destroying of all sins, and the very same dust was also to be seen in the lightning like shining crowns of brahma, rudra indra and other devatas (in other words, brahma rudra and others bowed down to the feet of Lord Krishna)
  • 89) After that he saw Lord Krishna, the primordial guru of the world herding the cows along with His elder brother. Seeing the One who never undergoes any destruction and the One who is always full of joy, Akroora fell at the feet of the best amongst men!
  • 90) Krishna, the Lord of the Yadus, along with his brother, made Akroora get up and took him to His house. He treated him with all the upacharas. Even though He is the embodiment of endless and eternal knowledge, He asked Akroora about the developments, as a matter of worldly engagement.
  • 91) Lord Krishna, who is verily Lord Padmanabha Himself, and is the One with a body that never ages, got to know about Kamsa’s intentions. IN the morning, he climbed up the chariot along with Balarama and Akroora. Together with the gopas, he reached the banks of the Yamuna in that chariot.
  • 92) Akroora made Lord Krishna and Balarama, the ones who are worshipped in all the worlds, stay in that excellent chariot and got down to the River Yamuna quickly. He had his bath there following the methods prescribed in the shastras. When he was immersing himself in the river, he had the vision of Lord Krishna in the form of shesha-shaayi (resting on Ananta), the best amongst all Purushas.
  • 93) Akroora, who was a large-hearted daani, was also siddha in the agharmarshana mantra. He used to have darshana of only shesha every day (during his agharmarshana). That day, it was very special that he saw Lord Hari as well. Seeing the child-form of Lord Krishna in front of Sesha, he wondered if Lord Krishna was not in the chariot and turned towards the chariot.
  • 94) He found Lord Krishna in the chariot too. Once again, he immersed himself into the water and saw Lord Krishna sleeping on the vast body of Sesha and His feet being worshipped by Brahma, Rudra, Indra and other devatas, and being accompanied by Lakshmi.
  • 95) He worshipped Lord Krishna, the One who is never destroyed, the One who is Padmanabha, with the best of the stutis and once the vision stopped he got back to the chariot. Along with Balarama and Lord Krishna, the One who is endless and One who is full of auspicious guNas, he reached Madhurapuri in the evening.
  • 96) To start with, Lord Krishna, the One with infinite valor, sent off Akroora and then joined Balarama and the other accomplices and went around the city to inspect the same. The residents of the city got very curious and worshipped Him a lot.
  • 97) Sri Krishna saw a washerman, who was very dear to Kamsa, and who had conquered death with the boon of Parvati, approaching on an elephant and asked him for clothes. The washerman started abusing Lord Krishna. At that moment, Lord Krishna smashed him with his palms and sent him to Yama.
  • 98) Lord Krishna, the One whose strength never reduces, having thus killed the washerman took those clothes which were excellent for Himself. He then gave some clothes to Balarama, and few others to his fellow gopas. He then laid the remaining clothes on the roads (of Madhura) and started walking on them,
  • 99) Lord Krishna has a body which is pure knowledge and is the embodiment of inherent and complete bliss. He does not have difference between Himself and his organs or parts. He is without growth or destruction. He can never be understood completely. Yet he emulated the ordinary beings of the world and got himself decorated/attended-to by a barber.
  • 100) Then Lord Krishna, the One who is independent and without any end, received a garland from Sudama. Even in their original forms, the barber and Sudama were the barber and garland maker for Lord Hari in vaikunTa. Hence they had taken avatara on earth in the same form to serve Lord Krishna.

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 13: Part 4

  • 61) Then, Lord Krishna got together with the cowherds and ate that food. The Lord of all went to Gokula and enjoyed there. Over here, the brahmins realized that they made a big mistake by violating Lord Krishna’s orders and atoned for it.
  • 62) Lord Krishna noticed that the cowherds were preparing for worshiping Indra and stopped the same. The Lord, the One without any destruction, did so in order to ensure that Indra does not think of HIM as a mere human and also to relieve him of his misconception.
  • 63) The Lord engaged them in HIS own worship by telling them “The worship of the hill is the best dharma for us”; The Lord took a huge form and received their worship which included a variety of food preparations and drink.
  • 64) Indra, having forgotten that Lord Krishna was verily the beholder of the chakra Himself, ordered the clouds to shower huge rains on the cowherds; The clouds, being instructed thus, showered rains that were as big as the trunks of elephants, so as to cause the destruction of Gokula.
  • 65) Noticing that the entire Gokula was suffering a lot because of the rains, Lord Padmanabha lifted that big mountain with only his left hand, which resembled the stem of a lotus plant; All the cowherds entered that mountain along with their cows.
  • 66) Noticing that the entire Gokula was being protected effortlessly by Lord Krishna, even though he rained an enormous amount of water for 7 days, Indra recollected that Lord Krishna was indeed the avatara of the Supreme Lord Hari. He took to the refuge of the lotus-feet of the Lord of Yadus.
  • 67) The thousand eyed Indra, along with the entire group of cow-herds,  rushed to Lord Krishna, the One who is the ocean of infinite auspicious attributes, the One who is worshipped by Shiva and who is the Guru of Brahma, the One who is greater than the best and One who has immense radiance, and praised Him with mantras from the Upanishads.
  • 68) O Lord Krishna! the One who has supreme strength! This world has been created by You, the One who has infinite radiance! You are the One who sustains all of this! In the end, You are the One who destroys all! All the bindings and liberation of this world are also due to You! There is none equal to you anywhere!
  • 69) “O Lord! Only you can excuse my childishness. I am ever dependent upon You” Having been saluted by Indra thus, Lord Krishna said “I have always forgiven you. I brought interruption to your worship only to warn you”
  • 70) Lord Indra, the lord of the entire group of cows, performed abhisheka to Lord Govinda, the One full of auspicious attributes, and returned. The gopas, whose doubts went away with the episode of Govardhana Uddharana, went to Lord Krishna, the Lord of all words, and prostrated before Him.
  • 71) From then on, the entire group of cowherds realized that Lord Krishna was “Narayana Himself”. They offered even more worship to Him, the One with lotus-like-eyes, after listening from Nanda that Sage Garga had revealed that “Krishna is the same as Narayana”.
  • 72) After having seen that Balarama had killed the demon Pralambasura, the one who could not be killed due to the boon of Skanda, the cowherds were convinced that Balarama too was a special devata. They offered special worship to him as well.
  • 73) Lord Krishna married those gopa-kanyas who had undertaken the katyayini vrata with the sole intention of obtaining HIM as their husband; He also gave joy to those gopa-strees who were wives to others already but had great desire to come to the LORD.
  • 74) Lord Krishna obtain 10 lakh sons out of these gopa-strees and they came to be known as “Narayana”; All of them were gopas but were originally from the devata-gaNa; All of them had taken birth on earth as the Lord’s sons due to their great bhakti in HIM
  • 75) Due to the boon given to them (gopa-strees) by HIMSELF earlier, even before Balarama and even before HIS own upanayana, Lord Krishna had great enjoy during the nights; LORD is the chintamani that ensures fructification of all requests and HE is verily without even a trace of inauspiciousness!
  • 76) During those full-moon nights, when Vrundavana was filled with the fragrance of lotus and mallika flowers, the gopikas used to get immersed in listening to the sweet music coming out of the face of Lord Mukunda; During one such time, a Yaksha came over there
  • 77) The name of that Yaksha was shankhachooda; He was protected by the boon of Rudra and was the servant of Kubera, who was Rudra’s friend; He was extremely powerful and cruel; He caused a lot of unrest amongst the gopikas and was killed by Lord Krishna with a hit from HIS palm; Lord Krishna took away a gem that he possessed
  • 78) Another asura, by the name of Arishta and by nature against Lord Krishna, came to Gokula in the form of an ox; He couldn’t be defeated by anyone due to the boon of Shiva and was Kamsa’s servant; Seeing him threaten the cows, Lord Krishna invited him to a fight quickly
  • 79) Arishtasura pounced upon Lord Krishna with his terrible and sharp horn; But Lord Krishna, the One who is full of strength and the One who is all-capable, caught hold of his horn and shoved it to the earth and killed him just like how one sacrifices an animal at the altar of yagnas
  • 80) Another asura, by the name of Keshi, was sent by Kamsa and approached Lord Krishna in the form of a horse; Due to the boon of Parvati that sinner could not be defeated by anyone; Lord Krishna kept his shoulders in his mouth; the shoulders started growing inside his mouth

Sri Raghavendra Raksha Manimaala Stotra

Sri Hariprasad Alur has kindly permitted me to post the Devanagari version of the excellent Sri Raghavendra Raksha Manimaala Stotra he has composed recently. May Sri Guru Sarvabhouma protect all those who chant this and fulfill all desires.

The pdf version of the same has been uploaded on the mantras page, under “Others” section

॥ श्री गुरुराघवेंद्ररक्षामणिमालाम् ॥

विभुधेंद्र विजयींद्र सुधींद्र वर करकमलसंजात मध्वंशाधिपः
भो गुरु राघवेंद्र पाहिमां पाहिमां रक्षमां रक्षमाम् ॥१॥

ये ये भक्ताः प्रातः काले निर्मल मनसा तव मुखारविन्दं स्मरेत्
सा सा भक्तस्य सकलाभीष्ट फलप्रदं भवेत्
भो गुरु राघवेंद्र पाहिमां पाहिमां रक्षमां रक्षमाम् ॥२॥

यो भक्ताः शुचिर्भूत्वा त्रिवारं राघवेंद्र इति तव नामसन्कीर्तनं कुर्यात्
त्वदन्तर्गत स्तिथे स्वामिन् कमलाक्षस्य कृपां निरन्तरं तस्य लभेत्
भो गुरु राघवेंद्र पाहिमां पाहिमां रक्षमां रक्षमाम् ॥३॥

नित्ये यो भक्ता तन्मूल असुदेवान्तर्गत वासुदेवार्पित नैवेद्यं भुन्क्त्व
तस्य सकल व्याधि निवारणमाप्नुयात्
भो गुरु राघवेंद्र पाहिमां पाहिमां रक्षमां रक्षमाम् ॥४॥

सत् शास्त्र आतुर्य यो जिज्नासु तव मूलस्थले नियमानुसारेण यथाशक्ति सेवा कुर्वन्
सा अद्रुश्टशालिनः लभते आनन्दतीर्थ मुनि बोधित तत्ववाद ग्रन्थामणि कण्ठीमालं निस्सन्देहं
भो गुरु राघवेंद्र पाहिमां पाहिमां रक्षमां रक्षमां ॥५॥

प्रुथ्वीमंडलस्तिथः यो दीनां तव पादद्वये शरणंगतः
तस्य तस्योपरि सकलपित्रूणां महिदासविठ्ठल दत्वा सद्गतिं सायुज्यं मुक्तिं
भो गुरु राघवेंद्र पाहिमां पाहिमां रक्षमां रक्षमां ॥६॥

॥ इति आलूरुकुलोत्पन्न श्रीनिवासशांतासूनु सेवार्थकृत
गुरुराघवेंद्ररक्षामणिमाला स्तोत्रं संपूर्णं श्रीकृष्णार्पणमस्तु ॥

कृष्णामृतमहार्णवः

|| श्रीमत् हनुमद्भीममध्वान्तर्गतरामकृष्णवेदव्यासात्मकश्रीलक्ष्मीहयग्रीवाय नमः ||

अर्चितः संसृतो ध्यातः कीर्तितः कथितः श्रुतः |

यो ददात्यमृतत्वं हि स मां रक्षतु केशवः || १ ||

तापत्रयेण सन्तप्तं यदेतदखिलं जगत् |

वक्ष्यामि शान्तये तस्य कृष्णामृतमहार्णवम् || २ ||

ते नराः पशवो लोके किं तेषां जीविते फलम् |

यैर्न लब्धा हरेर्दीक्षा नार्चितो वा जनार्दनः || ३ ||

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 13: Part 3

  • 41 Due to the special (and strange) dance of Lord Krishna, the umbrella like hoods of the Naga got damaged; He fell unconsciousness spitting blood from his mouth; Looking at the state of the Naga, his wives came to Lord Krishna, the primordial Guru of the world, and prayed to Him.
  • 42 Having been prayed upon by them, and by him (Kaaliya), Lord Krishna gave them confidence and, having sent him away from the waters of the Yamuna, made the river free from poison; All the Devatas, Siddhas, Sadhyas and others praised this act of Lord Krishna greatly.
  • 43 There was no limit to the joy of Balarama and the other Gopalakas; Having stayed there overnight on the banks of the Yamuna, along with them, the lotus-eyed Lord Krishna consumed the great forest fire that emerged at night, in order to protect the Gopalakas.
  • 44 In this way, when Lord Krishna, the One with unlimited divine strength, the One without birth, stayed in Gokula and performed divine acts that were not even in the realm of thinking for Devatas and Asuras, the people of Gokula were presented a danger in the form of a tree, that was an asura by name Ugra.
  • 45 Merely by the smell of his poison, humans, animals and all other beings were falling ill with various diseases and dying; The asura, who had the only goal of destroying the world, was impossible to be killed due to the boon of Brahma.
  • 46 When even Balarama got affected by the strength of that mighty poison, Lord Krishna cured him merely by His touch; The Lord destroyed the asura, who was in the form of the tree, along with all his associates, who too had taken the form of trees.
  • 47 At the same time, He also destroyed the Rakshasas who had taken the form of cows and had become invincible due to the boon of Brahma and He burnt those trees as well; The Lord Padmanabha, along with Balarama, enjoyed in the waters of the Yamuna, and quickly relieved Gokula of all diseases.
  • 48 Lord Krishna then killed seven asuras, who had taken the form of oxen and had obtained the boon of Shiva and thus had become extremely powerful and valorous and therefore could not be brought under control by anyone else; He then quickly obtained Neela, the daughter of Kumbhaka, who was the brother of Yashoda.
  • 49 She had performed a penance in her previous janma thinking thus – “I should become the first wife of Lord Krishna; I should unite with Lord Krishna before even all the other excellent women”; Therefore the Lord accepted her as the first one.
  • 50 Lord Krishna married Neela even before His upanayana; He also married those Gopa women who were excellent Apsaras as they had obtained a boon asking thus – “We should be granted your union even before your upanayana”.
  • 51 Once, the associates of Lord Krishna, asked Him, along with Balarama – “Please let us have the excellent ripe Tala fruits”; When they requested thus, Lord Krishna, along with Balarama, went to the plantation of Tala trees which had become out of reach for the Gopas due to the asura Dhenuka.
  • 52 Dhenuka was an evil daitya; Due to the boon of Vignesha, he had obtained long life and great strength; He was also always eager for fights; He used to remain intoxicated always; Noticing that Balarama was getting the fruits to drop from the trees, he rushed there.
  • 53 Balarama caught the hind legs of Dhenuka when he tried to kick him; Balarama smashed the rakshasa, who was in the form of a donkey, against the Tala trees and killed him; As soon as the evil donkey-formed rakshasa was destroyed, all the other donkeys in the plantation started rushing towards Lord Krishna and Balarama, making loud and disturbing noises; All of them were killed by Lord Krishna and Balarama.
  • 54 Having thus killed the donkey-formed Rakshasa, who had become invincible by others due to the boon of Vigneshwara, the Lord of Lakshmi, the One who is complete with Pourusha and other attributes, gave the excellent fruits to His people.
  • 55 Once, when the Gopa kids were playing in two teams, a Daitya by name Pralamba, having been sent by Kamsa, came there; When Lord Krishna’s team started winning, he, having been defeated, picked up Balarama in his ferocious form and left from there.
  • 56 Balarama, who was scared, started chanting the name of Lord Krishna; In order to fill strength in him, Lord Krishna reminded Balarama that He himself was present in Balarama also; Balarama regained his strength with this and he smashed the Rakshasa, who was flying in the sky, with his fist and killed him.
  • 57 When he was killed, the groups of Suras, who were extremely satisfied, named Rama as Baladeva; Lord Krishna, the Ocean of infinite attributes, once again drank the deadly forest fire and saved the Gopalas and the cows.
  • 58 Once the accompanying friends of Lord Krishna, when they had gone very far away, requested him thus – “All of us are suffering from extreme hunger”; Lord Krishna, the One who is the complete satisfier of all desires said thus – “There is a group of Brahmins close by who are performing a Yaga. Go and ask them”.
  • 59 Those Gopas went to them and returned back to Lord Krishna without their desires being fulfilled; Then the Lord spoke thus – “Go to their wives and tell them that I sent you”; They did the same; The wives of the Brahmins came running to Lord Krishna.
  • 60 Those wives of the Brahmins, with the only intention of serving Lord Krishna, gave up their husbands, sons and other relatives and came running towards Him holding six types of food in their hands; Lord Krishna sent them back; Only one lady, who was prevented by her husband, gave up her life and reached the abode of Lord Vishnu.

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 13: Part 2

  • 21 After that, Trunavarta had performed a similar penance; He too had obtained the boon of invincibility; All three of them had been killed by Lord Vishnu in the form of the child (Lord Krishna)
  • Note: The three of them here refers to Putana, Trunavarta and Shakatasura.
  • 22 Dhuni and Chamu had taken shelter in the two Arjuna trees; Lord Krishna killed them too when he brought down the trees; The trees too had been born due to a curse!
  • 23 Previously, the two sons of Kubera had stood naked in front of Sage Narada; “Both of you take birth as trees immediately” – Sage Narada had cursed them thus.
  • 24 Therefore, they obtained their original forms due to the grace of Lord Krishna, as they were noble souls inherently; They worshipped the Lord and returned to their world.
  • 25 The Gopalakas started watching Lord Krishna, the One who liberated Nalakoobara and Manigreeva, with awe and surprise.
  • 26 Lord Krishna, the son of Nanda, desired to go to Vrundavana; He created many wolves, which were equal in strength to tigers, out of his hair follicles (the gap in the skin holding the hair).
  • 27 The people of Gokula, who were troubled by crores of such wolves, took Lord Krishna, the One who is eternally blissful, with them and left for Vrundavana.
  • 28 Lord Krishna, the Lord of all, the One with immeasurable joy, the Lord of Indira, made Nanda and others happy in Vrundavana with his extra ordinary acts.
  • 29 Having got together with Balarama, the one who had soft radiance on his beautiful face which exceeded the glow of the moon, Lord Krishna became a cow-herd; What surprise!
  • 30 Lord Krishna killed a Daitya who was the assistant of Kamsa and was in the form of a calf, and who had become invincible due to Shiva’s boon, by smashing him against a tree; Later, an assistant of Kamsa, by name Baka, approached Lord Krishna, the One who is all powerful.
  • 31 He (Baka) who was protected by Shanmukha’s boon swallowed Lord Krishna; He immediately brought Him out as the Lord started burning like fire inside Baka’s stomach; After that, seeing Baka rush towards Him in order to kill with his beak, the Lord held his beak.
  • 32 Lord Krishna, who had tender hands like sprouts, immediately held the two parts of the beak and split that bird-like-Daitya into two; Brahma and others showered flowers on the Lord and praised HIm; In the evening, He returned to Vraja along with His older brother.
  • 33 In this way, Lord Krishna, the One with lotus-feet, was worshipped by the best of Devatas and lived comfortably amongst the cow-herds and grew up to be of six years of age; The Lord, who is the maintainer of all, started taking care of the cows in the large areas of Vrudanavana that were full of thick bushes.
  • 34 Lord Krishna, the One with unimaginable strength, once left his brother Balarama and went to the banks of the river Yamuna, along with groups of cow-herds and their cows, and started enjoying; Noticing the sorrow that the cow-herds would get in future, He left behind his older brother in order to let them know of His greatness.
  • 35 Knowing that the serpent Kaaliya had become indefatigable due to the boon of Brahma, and also knowing that it had the strength of poison that was unbearable to anyone apart from Garuda, Lord Krishna protected the cows and the cow-herds that had died by drinking the poisoned water.
  • 36 Those cows and cow-herds were all revived by the divine nectar that was the sight of the Lord; Later, Lord Krishna climbed the Kadamba tree that had high branches and tied His upper cloth to His waist; He then rubbed His shoulders with His hands and jumped into the poison-filled water from a great height.
  • 37 Kaaliya was perturbed with the force with which the Supreme Personality Lord Krishna dived; Due to his poison, the water in the thick forests rose; The water sprayed over a distance of 100 Dhanus with terrible waves that were mixed with the poison; But how could that be an issue for the One with infinite strength?
  • 38 Kaaliya, the ignorant, came with his followers to Lord Krishna who had churned the river Yamuna, and bit Him; He tied his Lord with his body; But the Lord of all, Krishna, tolerated the mistakes of His devotee.
  • 39 Then, seeing the evil omens, all the groups of Gopas rushed towards the river even though Balarama convinced them a lot; Seeing the sorrow of his great band of followers who believed in Him, Lord Krishna started crushing Kaaliya even though he was His devotee.
  • 40 Lord Krishna started dancing on the high hoods of the serpent; Brahma and others started showering flowers on Him and praised Him; Kaaliya was extremely pained and he started bleeding from his mouth and mentally resorted to the shelter of Narayana.

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 13: Part 1

|| OM namo bhagavate vasudevaya OM ||

  • 1 Sage Garga went to Gokula as per the words of Vasudeva; He was the purohit of the Yadavas; He conducted those Samskaras to Lord Krishna and Balarama that were appropriate for Kshatriyas.
  • 2 Sage Garga said this – “O Nanda! Your son is no less than Lord Vishnu in any of the attributes; All of you shall be taken care of by him and you shall obtain excellent happiness”.
  • 3 When he said thus, Nanda became extremely joyous; Sage Garga returned back; After that, Lord Krishna, the primordial Being, got together with this older brother and went around, his feet thereby purifying the land of Gokula.
  • 4 Once, in order to remove the illusion in his mother’s mind that He was a kid, Lord Krishna, the Lord of all, ate some mud even as people were watching.
  • 5 When the mother scolded Him, He replied – “O Mother! I did not eat any mud. See for yourself” and then He opened His mouth; She saw the entire Universe made of the primordial nature and all its manifestations; In this way, Lord Krishna displayed his unimaginable and excellent capabilities and made her realize his true capacity and instantly ended that vision, once she understood it strongly.
  • 6 In this way, Lord Krishna, even though he is the embodiment of infinite knowledge and bliss, followed the way of the world and showed his acts by walking on the land of Gokula.
  • 7 Once, when the infinitely capable Lord Krishna was drinking milk from the breast of Yashoda, she lowered him to the ground so that she could take care of the milk which was spilling over on the oven; Then, He broke a pot containing curds.
  • 8 Lord Krishna picked up the butter that was coming out of the curds that was churned, the butter shining like a full moon, and ate it secretly.
  • 9, 10 Lord Krishna acted in that matter, even though He was like fire to Adharma, in order to teach the excellent Swadharma to the Devatas that when Devatas are born on earth, it is appropriate for them to behave according to the Yuga and according to the age and also as appropriate to their lineage.
  • 11 The Lord, who takes avatara as human, animals and other forms, even though is always One and the same, acts as if He undergoes childhood, youth and other stages and performs acts appropriate to those ages.
  • 12 When He takes avatara as Brahmin, King, cow-herd and other forms, He peforms the duties appropriate to those Varnas in order to teach the Devatas.
  • 13 Even then, the Lord still displays His natural strength which can never be equalled by other Devatas and also exhibits His qualities again and again.
  • 14 After that, Lord Krishna, the Lord of the world, saw that His mother picked up a stick and started running; That lady started chasing Him, the One who can not be held even by the mind.
  • 15 Lord Krishna, the Lord of all and the One with huge steps, noticed the tiredness of His mother and, in order to show that He is bound by His devotees, got caught by her.
  • 16 When Gopika (Yashoda) picked up a rope to tie Lord Krishna, the One who is eternally liberated, the One who is supremely capable, the rope proved insufficient to bind Him.
  • 17 Even when rolls of rope were put together, it proved insufficient for that endless body of Lord Krishna, who was merely displaying infancy.
  • 18 After having displayed to all that He can never be subject to binding, the Lord of all and the bearer of the world Himself got bound by a small rope used to tie a calf.
  • 19 The Lord of all, Lord Krishna, thus showed the Dharma that it is the duty of a son to be under the control of one’s mother; He then brought down a pair of Arjuna trees that had grown so tall that they were as if touching the skies; The two of them were actually children of Devatas.
  • 20 Previously, two people known as Dhuni and Chamu had got together with Putana and along with Shakatasura had performed a penance to please Parvati; Parvati had granted all four of them the boon that they will not be killed by anyone.

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 12: Part 4

  • 106 When Bhima was two months old, Balarama, the strong and noble one, was born in Rohini; Since he had done extreme service to the Lord as Lakshmana, he was born before Lord Krishna this time.
  • 107 When Kamsa had chained the innocent Vasudeva and Devaki in order to kill their sons, he had kept the other wives of Vasudeva away from him.
  • 108 Since he wanted to make sure who the kids born out of Devaki were, the evil minded Kamsa used to keep the other pregnant wives of Vasudeva in other places till they gave birth.
  • 109 Due to this reason, Rohini was placed in Nanda’s house by Kamsa to ensure her delivery; Therefore, Rohini gave birth to Balarama, the one who looked like a full moon, the one who was pleasing, the one who had pure hue, in Gokula itself.
  • 110 When Balarama was three months old, the birthless Supreme Being Lord Krishna made his appearance; Vasudeva and Devaki had performed a penance to obtain both Lord Krishna and Sesha as their sons.
  • 111 “May I obtain a son who is strong and has excessive noble attributes, along with the presence of Lord Vishnu” – Rohini had performed a penance with such an intention; Therefore, Sesha was born in both Devaki and Rohini, along with the avesha of the Shukla Kesha form of Lord Hari.
  • 112 Balarama, who had the special presence of the Shukla Kesha form of Lord Hari, grew up in Gokula itself; Along with him, Lord Krishna too pleased the whole of Gokula displaying his charming acts.
  • 113 In order to succintly show His mother the truth that He is not an ordinary kid and He is truly beyond matter (prakriti), Lord Krishna, the Lord of all, once displayed that everything is inside Him under the pretext of yawning.
  • 114 Yashoda saw (inside Him), the entire Brahmanda which contained the five great elements, the mind, ahamkara, mahat tattva, Shiva along with Brahma and other Devatas who were engulged by Prakriti, and the entire species of humans, danavas and others.
  • 115 Yashoda became very frightened and closed both of her eyes; Lord Krishna then hid that form of His; The Lord showed that form in order to make the noble people realize that His body is verily knowledge and joy and that He is complete.
  • 116 Once when Lord Krishna was playing, Yashoda found it very difficult to lift Him due to His weight. She therefore placed Him on the ground and engaged herself in work; A terrible Daitya came over there at that time.
  • 117 That Rakshasa, who went by the name of Trunavarta, was an attendant of Kamsa; He created a terrible hurricane and picked up Lord Krishna, who was in the form of a kid, and jumped up; Lord Krishna held his neck and suffocated him.
  • 118 That Rakshasa, who had a mountain like body, fell down dead on a rock after being killed by Lord Krishna; All the people who saw that mutilated body of the Daitya were awestruck.
  • 119 In order to bless those who did not get upset and in order to take away the punya in excess of their yogyata in those who got upset, Lord Krishna, the One with all noble attributes, the One who is the ocean of pure and inherent joy, went around stealing butter and other things.
  • 120 In the month of Bhadrapada when Guru and Surya were both in Simha Rashi, the Supreme Lord Krishna took avatara; In the same year, in the month of Phalguna, Arjuna was born; After that, Madravati (Madri) spoke (thus) to Pandu.
  • 121 “Excellent sons have been born to you through Kunti; Only I am left without a child now; With your grace, I too want to have a son; Please tell Kunti to instruct the mantra to me”.
  • 122 When Madri requested thus, Pandu told Kunti – “You instruct that excellent mantra, which grants progeny, to Madri”; When he spoke thus, the Yadavi Kunti said – “For your sake, I shall instruct the mantra to Madri such that it bears fruit only once”.
  • 123 Kunti instructed that progeny bearing mantra to Madri and said thus – “This will not give you results more than once”; Having received the mantra, Madri thought – “How can I obtain two sons?”.
  • 124 “Among the Devatas, the Ashwinis always remain together; They are never separated from each other; There is no difference in their names either; Both of them have a single wife named Usha; Therefore, even if invoked once, both of them would appear together”.
  • 125 Having thought in this manner, Madri invited the Ashwini Devatas; They came down immediately; Both of them were born as sons to her; Nakula was born first; Sahadeva was born next; They were both twins.
  • 126, 127 Madri requested her husband to get the mantra to bear fruit once again; When he said so, Kunti responded – “This Madri is a cheat; Without my permission, she invited the Ashwini Devatas; Therefore, I am worried that she may oppose my children too in future; Therefore, do not ask me to make the mantra work again”; When she said thus, Pandu (agreed and) kept quiet.
  • 128 Devatas grant progeny only when invoked with their special names; It was unique of the Ashwinis that even their special names were the same; Therefore, Madri had invited them; It is only appropriate when there is a difference in the Avrutti name of the mantra.
  • Note: The names of the Ashwinis (which are interchangeable) are Nasatra and Dasyu.
  • 129 Vayudeva had a presence in the other four Pandavas as well, more so in Arjuna; In Yudhisthira, he entered with his form known as ‘Soumya” and in Dhananjaya, he entered in a form called “Veera”.
  • 130 Expressing only the form of beauty – “Sundara” – the main Vayu had entered Nakula and Sahadeva; Hadn’t Pandu desired to have a fourth progeny only with the intention of a handsome son?
  • 131 Vayudeva entered Nakula with the special form of “Shrungara” and with the form of “Suniti” in Sahadeva; Vayudeva, who is the inner soul of the entire world, had taken birth as Bhimasena himself, exhibiting all his noble attributes.
  • 132 People tend to call one as handsome if he has a physique like that of a fresh sprout; Therefore, even though Bhima and Arjuna, with their tougher-than-diamond like bodies, were very attractive, Pandu had desired to obtain another good looking son.
  • 133 To those who have a subtle vision, a physique with the 32 lakshanas will appear beautiful; Therefore, Vayudeva resided in Nakula with a soft radiance; In this way, Vayu stayed in five different forms.
  • 134, 135 Lord Vishnu and the five Pandavas, all six of them, held the position of Indra previously; Lord Hari, who held the position of the first Indra with the name of Yajna, was Lord Krishna; Vayu, who was the second Indra, was Bhima himself; Yamadharma was the third Indra; He became Yudhisthira; After that, Nasatra and Dasra became Indras respectively; They were Nakula and Sahadeva, the sons of Madri; Purandara was both the sixth and seventh Indra; He was Arjuna; In this way, all of them were Indras.
  • 136 All of them had the samskaras appropriate for Kshatriyas and obtained their inherent and natural capacities and started growing; All of them were very knowledgeable; They engaged themselves in Dharmic activities that fetched the love of Lord Vishnu; All of them were great devotees of Lord Keshava and they always placed their heart on Him.

|| End of chapter 12, known as ‘Shri Krishnavatara Pandavotpatti’, from the Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya, composed by Srimadanandatirtha Bhagavatpada ||

|| Sri Krishnaarpanamastu ||

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 12: Part 3

  • 71 The most excellent woman, Sri Durga, also told (him) the same – “O Sinner! Your death has taken birth already close-by over here; Without any reason, you tried to kill me, the one without any fault; Your effort will never succeed”.
  • 72 Having told Kamsa thus, Sri Durga slept on the lap of Devaki in the form of a child; Except the parents, Devaki and Vasudeva, no one could notice that the one with all noble attributes was lying this way; What surprise!
  • 73 Having listened to all that, Kamsa immediately repented and repeatedly requested Vasudeva and his wife to cheer up; They too, without getting upset, told him thus – “O King! For both joy and sorrow, there isn’t anyone else apart from Lord Hari who is the reason, isn’t it?”.
  • 74 Later, Kamsa called all his ministers to his palace and told them all that Sri Durga had told him; Having listened to him, those sinners opined thus – “All the kids should be put to death”.
  • 75 “Let it be so” – Kamsa said thus and, having engaged his ministers for this task, he retired to his inner chambers; Those ministers, being inherently cruel and taking pleasure in violence, went around killing children.
  • 76 The next morning, Yashoda and Nanda saw Lord Krishna, the One with eyes like lotus-petals, the One whose inherent nature is complete joy, the One who can never be grasped by the senses, lying on the bed.
  • 77 Both of them assumed that Lord Krishna, the One who is the father of even the lotus-born, the One who is the Lord of all, as their own son; Nanda, whose heart was filled with extreme joy, donated lakhs of cows to Brahmins.
  • 78 Nanda, who was the leader of the Gopas, donated gold, jewels, clothes and ornaments as well in huge numbers; All the Gopas, holding on to their gifts, went towards Nanda; The Gopa ladies too went to Yashoda in great joy.
  • 79, 80 After having spent some time there, Nanda left for Kamsa’s house; Prior to that, Nanda had started from Bruhadvana and had reached the banks of Yamuna in order to pay taxes to Kamsa; Yashoda, who had come along with him, gave birth to Sri Durga there itself; Vasudeva had come there and, having placed Lord Krishna, had taken Sri Durga and returned home; Nanda had stayed back there itself.
  • 81 Nanda spent a month at the banks of the Yamuna and later left to see Kamsa; After he handed over the tax to the King, Vasudeva came to see him and told him thus.
  • 82 “I am seeing inauspicious omens; Start soon”; When he said thus, Nanda quickly left towards the Yamuna; Even before he returned, Kamsa’s maid had reached there at night.
  • 83 She was known by the name of Putana; She hid her real form and put on an auspicious (looking) form and entered the camp of Nanda which was erected on the border of Bruhadvana on the road.
  • 84 In that camp by the banks of Yamuna, she picked up Lord Krishna, who was in the form of an infant; Yashoda, who was very drowsy, thought of her as a good person.
  • 85 Due to her maya and sleep, Yashoda did not stop her at all; When she gave her breast for feeding, Lord Krishna, the Lord of all, sucked it, along with her Prana itself.
  • 86 She fell down dead after taking her real, huge and terrible form occupying the entire forest; By that time Nanda also arrived there and all of them were awestruck seeing all this.
  • 87 That Putana was the Rakshasi Thataki, along with the avesha of Urvashi; Since she tried to kill Lord Krishna, she reached Tamas; Urvashi, who was inside of her, got purified when Lord Krishna sucked her breast and immediately reached Swarga.
  • 88 Since she (Urvashi) had copulated with Tumburu, she had incurred the curse of Kubera and had to enter the body of a Rakshasi; Her body became purified by the contact of Lord Krishna and she got back to Swarga; What in this world is impossible when Lord Ramesha is pleased?
  • 89 When Lord Krishna was running the fourth month, the Samskara of Upanishkramana took place; On the morning of that day, the Lord’s Janma Nakshatra was also present; Hence a big celebration took place.
  • Note: The Upanishkramana samskara involves taking the child out of the house for the first time, to a temple, tirtha kshetra, or elders’ homes.
  • 90 During that, Lord Krishna, who was sleeping under a chariot, kicked it in order to kill a demon; A demon had entered the chariot with the intention of opposing Lord Krishna.
  • 91 When Lord Krishna kicked the chariot, an Asura named Shakataksha fell down along with the chariot; His body was destroyed into pieces and he immediately died; The wheels and the axle of the chariot were scattered all over.
  • 92 By that time, Yashoda, who had come back from the banks of the river, was taken to task by Nanda; She very eagerly picked up Lord Krishna and, suspecting foul play by the planets, she bathed him along with the chanting of the Vedic Suktas by excellent Brahmins.
  • 93 In this way, having killed the attendant of Kamsa, Lord Krishna, the controller of all, the One with excellent auspicious attributes, fell asleep again like a kid; In this way, He gave great joy to all Gopalas with His child-like playful activities and stayed there.
  • 94 When Lord Krishna was growing up like this, although only in the eyes of the world, Pandu told thus to Kunti – “We first obtained a son who is very Dharmic; After that, we have obtained a son who is excellent in both physical strength and in the strength of knowledge”.
  • 95 “If there is only one son who is very strong, then it is possible that when he is waging wars with enemies, other enemies may attack our place and may steal and loot us; Therefore, it is better to have two such sons”.
  • 96 “We need a son who is very valorous and knows all the astras and weapons; Therefore, you invite a suitable Devata; Sesha has been born as your brother’s son; Therefore, he will not be appropriate to give a son”.
  • 97 “Garuda cannot grant a son and be born as a human; Lord Hari has ordered him thus earlier; Shankara is the abhimani for anger; He will not be appropriate for ruling the Kingdom”.
  • 98 “Therefore, after them, it is Mahendra who is the most powerful; It is appropriate to call the Lord of Swarga, Indra, himself” – when she was told thus, Kunti immediately invited Indra; Then, Indra himself was born.
  • 99 He was the one known as Arjuna; He had the amsha of Nara; He also had the presence of Lord Vishnu in him; He was very strong and knew all the astras and weapons; When Pandu said – “I want another son who is very good looking”, Kunti immediately said no in order to protect Dharma.
  • 100 Before all of them, the knowledgeable Brihaspati, in order to serve the feet of the Lord very well, was born as Uddhava to a Yadava warrior known as Upagava, along with the presence of Pavana (Vayu).
  • 101 Brihaspati took birth once again in the lineage of the Yadavas, as Uddhava, in order to serve the Supreme Being, as he knew that the Lord would not accept him as his favorite servant in the form of Drona.
  • 102 Uddhava learnt all the shastras from Brihaspati himself and became known as knowledgeable and skilled and became a minister to Lord Krishna; Three years after he was born, Satyaki was born; On the same day, Chekitana was born too.
  • 103 One of the Maruts by name Pratibha was born in the lineage of the Yadavas to serve Lord Hari; That Marut was Chekitana himself; Krutavarma too was born at the same time as the son of Hrudika; Three years after that, Yudhishthira was born.
  • 104 One year after that, Shiva was born in order to serve Lord Hari in the task of reducing the Earth’s burden; He was a great soul and he neighed like a horse as soon as he was born; Hence he was named “Ashwathama”.
  • 105 Ashwathama was born in the sister of Krupa by the semen of Drona and became knowledgeable, powerful and skilled in weapons; Four days after that Duryodhana was born; One day after that, the brave warrior Bhimasena was born.