Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 29: Part 2

  • 41) “He who opposes either Sri Vishnu or his devotee through his thoughts, words or deeds and he who thinks of anything as not being under the control of Sri Vishnu – such a person shall attain Tamas”.
  • 42) “He who thinks of Sri Vishnu as being under the control of others; He who does not realize Sri Vishnu is complete in all aspects; He who is not a devotee of Sri Vishnu – such a person shall definitely attain Tamas”.
  • 43) “Those who harbour doubts about Tattva shall attain Naraka due to such defects. If they possess multiple gunas they shall not attain Andhantamas”.
  • 44) “Those who possess gunas and doshas in equal measure keep getting born as humans again and again. Remaining thus till their defects are destroyed, they then attain higher states increasingly”.
  • 45) “Once all defects are destroyed, one gets Mukti due to increase in devotion and knowledge, both of which are commensurate with one’s inherent ability (Swabhava). Noble deeds fetch Swarga. Sinful acts are destroyed by the words of Sri Vishnu or his devotees”.
    • Note: Once sins are destroyed, the increase in knowledge and devotion is not unlimited. Each jeeva gets knowledge and devotion that is a reflection of the jeeva’s inherent Swabhava. Higher jeevas like Brahma, Vayu, Rudra get more knowledge and devotion in Sri Hari than lower jeevas.
  • 46) Sri Vishnu, by being present inside Bhishma, taught these and other secrets of Dharma to the Pandavas. Having listened to the same, the son of Dharma asked his brothers and Vidura which among the three out of Dharma, Artha and Kama was the greater Purushartha.
  • 47) Vidura opined that Dharma was the best (purushartha) while Artha was average and Kama, being non-productive, was lowly. Arjuna claimed Artha to be the best.
  • 48) “Artha is of two types – Daiva (divine) and Maanusha (humanly). Knowledge is divine wealth. Money, gold and others are humanly wealth”.
  • 49) “Dharma is madhyama (neither excellent nor low). Vidya is both a goal and an instrument for Dharma. Mukti too is obtained through Vidya “.
  • 50) “The humanly (or material) wealth can become an instrument for Vidya when utilized in the right way. Due to (the right utilization of) such wealth, a Guru can become pleased and facilitate Moksha”.
    • Note: Material wealth must be always utilized for noble reasons such as pleasing Gurus and elders. This will lead to them gracing us and facilitating the attainment of Moksha.
  • 51) “Even if wealth is unknowingly utilized for Dharma, Gurus and Devatas shall be pleased. Dharma that is undertaken without the desire of (specific) results also follows wealth only”.
  • 52) “Therefore, Artha is what possesses superiority. Since Kama is non-productive it is inferior”. The twins too, being great scholars, approved of what Arjuna said.
    • Note: Nakula and Sahadeva agreed with Arjuna’s assessment.
  • 53) Then, Bhimasena, the best amongst great knowers of truth, addressed everyone energetically and with a smile and said – “There is no other Purushartha greater than Kama. How then can it be inferior?”
  • 54) “Scholars term desire as Kama. Purusharthas and their results are desirable hence Kama is superior indeed. That which is not desirable can never be a Purushartha. Isn’t it known as Purushartha since it is desired by Purushas?”
    • Note: The basic commonality between all four Purusharthas is that jeevas desire to attain them. Hence ishta (desire) which is another name for Kama is the underlying requirement for even the other Purusharthas. It therefore cannot be inferior. Quite the opposite actually!
  • 55) “Knowledge, devotion and other qualities act as instruments for Purushartha. But, they cannot be such instruments if detached from desire. Therefore, if not desired, even the final Moksha is not attainable”.
  • 56) “Sri Hari, who is the best of the best and the primordial being, is an object of desire for himself and others too. If he is not desired then he grants an inauspicious end-state. Therefore he too is known as Kama. In this way, all Purusharthas are actually Kama only”.
  • 57) “Although Kama is interpreted as desire, if it is not present, even a sentient being becomes insentient like a pot or a wall. Therefore, that desire which is the very essence of a sentient being is superior indeed. Being sentient in essence, it always remains under wraps”.
  • 58-59) “Therefore it is wholly inappropriate to treat Kama separately. Therefore O King! If you wish to understand the relative hierarchy in Kama (it is as follows) – When Kama is in accordance with both Dharma and Artha, it is superior. If it is in line with just one of them, it is medium. If it is against both, such Kama is inferior. Therefore one should always enjoy Kama that is in sync with one’s intellect known as Stri”.
  • 60) “O King! There is no other Purushartha greater than Kama. Sri Hari, who is intellect personified, who is one’s best friend, who is always embalmed with the essence of sandalpaste, who is wearing special garlands and jewels and one who is Supreme, is indeed Kama himself” – having thus described it succinctly as well as in detail, the brave Bhima became silent.
  • 61) Dharmaraja praised Bhima and the others and praised Moksha as the best Purushartha. Since it was not (totally) against his own words, Bhimasena did not reject (counter) it.

|| End of chapter 29, known as ‘Samasta Dharma Sangraha’, from the Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya, composed by Srimadanandatirtha Bhagavatpada ||

|| Sri Krishnarpanamastu ||

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