Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 28: Part 3

  • 81) When Bhima stood fearlessly, Sri Krishna stopped Balarama and said – “Duryodhana has been killed by Bhima by following the right Dharma”.
  • 82) “One should not be hit below the navel when moving in circles or when approaching or moving away. But it is not a violation to hit (in such a manner) when one is cheating”.
  • 83) “Vrikodara has undertaken a vow for the right reasons saying ‘I would break your thighs’ in order to teach the message of Dharma to the world. Therefore, Duryodhana has been killed in the path of Dharma only, by Bhimasena who is always adherent to Dharma”.
  • 84) Listening to the words of Sri Krishna, Balarama said that it was deception of Dharma and proceeded to his city (Dwaraka) along with his followers.
  • 85) After Balarama departed, Yudhisthira asked Sri Vasudeva – “Is this Dharma or Adharma?”. Sri Keshava replied.
  • 86) “The most evil ones should never be killed through a literal interpretation of Dharma. Earlier, Devatas too had killed their enemies, the Asuras, through deception only”.
  • 87) “Therefore, the sinner Duryodhana has been killed by the way of Adharma itself. There is nothing wrong with this. When Bhishma, Drona and Karna have been killed through deception, what is the defect if the sinner Duryodhana dies in this manner?”
  • 88) “Vrikodara broke his thighs in order to fulfill his vow. That vow made by him was also in accordance with Dharma. Therefore, in the eyes of the world, there has been no transgression of Dharma”.
  • 89) “Those who are unaware of Bhima’s greatness will consider this as (an act of) Apaddharma. Due to his being free from death because of the boon of Shiva, and due to his knowledge of mace-fight and strength, Duryodhana is well known as the one equal to Jarasandha”.
  • 90) Therefore Sri Krishna made it clearly known that Bhima’s act was Dharma indeed. Still, the lord of the world put Dharmaraja in a quandary.
  • 91) Sri Krishna, the best amongst all, did all of that in order that Bhima may get the complete punya from having performed the seva of bhu-bhara-harana.
    • Note: The main purpose of Sri Krishna’s Avatara was to eliminate the burden of evil from Earth or bhu-bhara-harana. In this task, Bhima was the main servitor of Paramatma. Hence Sri Krishna wanted the entire punya arising from this task to go to Vrikodara.
  • 92) Even after Sri Krishna clarified repeatedly to Balarama and the other people that it was Dharma (what Bhima did), Yudhisthira did not give up his doubts and hence he did not obtain complete punya.
    • Note: Doubting the words of Paramatma cost Yudhishthira a lot of punya.
  • 93) Still, Sri Krishna did not ensure all of Dharmaraja’s doubts had been cleared. He conveyed the chief Dharma to Balarama and the other people.
  • 94) Sri Krishna will firmly teach Arjuna in future that the killing of Dhritharashtra’s son was through Dharma.
  • 95) When Sri Krishna repeatedly insisted that Bhima had taken the route of Dharma in felling the King, the evil Duryodhana condemned Sri Krishna with so much anger that his lips shook.
  • 96) “Pandavas engaged in sin because of you. Therefore it is you alone who are the greatest sinner” – when Duryodhana said thus, Sri Krishna replied – “There is no sinner equal to you”.
  • 97) “Since Bhishma and the others followed you who was firm in sin, the sin of killing them would also go to you. There is no sin if a sinner or the followers of sinners are killed”.
  • 98) “Neither by nature nor by their activities, the Pandavas do not possess even a little sin. They are the best in character. They believe in me. Who can accuse even an iota of sin in them?”
  • 99) “Since you got even those who were on the path of Dharma to ride the path of sin, and because you yourself always engaged in sin, and because you are by nature most evil, you will obtain the end result that will surpass the terrible fate that even the biggest sinners get”.
    • Note: Sri Krishna says here that Duryodhana will attain Andhantamas which is the state reserved for the most evil souls.
  • 100) Sri Krishna, who had spoken thus, was asked by Duryodhana – “Who else can get a happy ending such as mine? What is sinful in whatever I did?”
  • 101) “I performed Yajnas; built lakes and wells (performed ishta-poorta); stomped the heads of enemies in war; found death even as I was fighting in the battlefield; What more is there?”
  • 102) “I have enjoyed all the pleasures I wanted. I shall obtain an excellent gati going forward. The Pandavas, who have experienced sorrow and engaged in a deceitful war, shall only obtain sorrow in future too”.
    • Note: Gati stands for the world the soul reaches after death. Duryodhana here claims he will attain one of the superior worlds.
  • 103) “There are no more heroes, like the Sun and Moon, nor noble men who are followers of Dharma, on this Earth. There are no jewels (wealth) either. Let the Pandavas experience (rule) such a (barren) Earth”.
  • 104) As soon as Duryodhana spoke thus, the shower of flowers made by Devatas fell there. They did so in order to firm up his belief about his evil doings and ensure he falls in Tamas.
    • Note: Sri Madhwacharya here explains the real reasons behind the pushpa-vrushti performed by the Devatas on Duryodhana. He was a Tamasic jeeva who was destined to fall into Andhantamas. If he developed any sort of remorse, his sins would reduce thereby qualifying for a lesser degree of punishment in Andhantamas. Evil souls such as Duryodhana fully deserve the darkest Tamas. Hence, in order to firm up his beliefs in his own evil actions, the Devatas showered flowers on him.
  • 105) How can a special Tamas not be the destiny for the one who boasted about himself, while condemning Sri Vasudeva and his devotees?
  • 106) Sri Krishna got this (shower of flowers) done in order to convey that even when one of the sins are done it leads to greater sorrow. What then to say of someone who did all of them? He then said – “All of what you have done is a waste”.
    • Note: Even if a person just praises himself when sins are committed or if a person condemns devotees of Vishnu or if he condemns Sri Hari himself, deeper sorrow is guaranteed. When Duryodhana has done all of these sins, there is no question about his eventual state, which is nothing but Andhantamas.
  • 107) If a cruel person, an ingrate, or someone who always hates the noble can obtain the punya of Dharma, then it has to be said that darkness can illuminate like Sun!
  • 108) Sri Krishna, who grants the desires of devotees, saying thus repeatedly, conveyed to his devotees that Bhima had definitely killed Duryodhana through the path of Dharma.
  • 109) When Sri Krishna thus established the real nature of Dharma, all the noble people there became convinced in their hearts. All of them concluded with certainty that the sinner King had been killed through the means of Dharma.
  • 110) Dharmaraja, being always concerned about sins, got into a doubt because of the shower of flowers. Due to affection over Duryodhana, Ashwathama, Sanjaya and Balarama claimed his killing to be Adharma.
  • 111) After that, Sri Krishna, together with the Pandavas and the Panchalas who were rejoicing with shouts of victory, left from the battlefield with a smile, being greatly worshipped by Brahma, Shiva, Indra and the other Devatas.
  • 112) Then, after hearing the news of Dhritharashtra’s sorrow from Sanjaya, Yuyutsu went to him as per the directions of Sri Krishna and Yudhisthira. Sri Krishna also went behind him.
  • 113) Sri Krishna consoled Dhritharashtra with words of comfort that were in accordance with Dharmashastras and full of truth and in line with the ways of the world. He then returned to the Pandavas.
  • 114) In order to cause the destruction of those on the side of the Pandavas, who were Avataras of Devatas, Sri Krishna proceeded towards the Kaurava camps along with the Pandavas and Satyaki.
    • Note: The time had arrived for ending the Avataras of many Devatas who had taken birth and had sided with the Pandavas in the war such as Dhrishtadyumna, sons of Draupadi and others.
  • 115) At the same time, Ashwathama, along with Krupa and the son of Hardika (Krutavarma) went to Duryodhana, who was down with broken thighs. By that time, dogs, jackals and pisachas had already started eating his body. He was breathing heavily.
  • 116) Ashwathama, who was immersed with sorrow and mourning, condemned the Pandavas and asked – “O King! What should I do?”. Duryodhana said – “Ensure that the Pandavas are eliminated” and consecrated him with dust.
    • Note: Even under the dire circumstances, Duryodhana did not give up his hatred of the Pandavas. He made Ashwathama his commander and, in the absence of water, poured dust on his head to consecrate.
  • 117) With the unstated desire that the Pandavas must be eliminated and then progeny must be had with his wife and then the world must be ruled by those children, Duryodhana consecrated Ashwathama in that manner. Ashwathama agreed to it and left.
    • Note: It was Duryodhana’s hidden message to Ashwathama to marry his wife after killing the Pandavas and obtain children who could then rule the Kingdom.
  • 118) Out of fear of Sri Krishna, Bhima and Arjuna, Ashwathama sat in a chariot along with Krupa and Krutavarma and entered a dense forest.
  • 119-120) Thinking of Drona’s killing and the end of Duryodhana, Ashwathama could not get sleep. There, he noticed a very powerful owl killing many thousands of crows perched on the banyan tree under which they were sitting. Immediately he said to Krupa and Krutavarma.

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