Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 22: Part 3

  • 81) “If all three pramanas connect without contrariness, then it is known as poorna-pramana. If they persist on three different topics but without contradicting each other, it is known as madhyama-pramana. If they are contrary to each other, it is known as apramana. Therefore they have to be interpreted and understand ensuring that they don’t contradict each other”.
  • 82) “One who is without the power of discretion will discard even that which is established by sensory perception and, by making an excuse of the Supreme one being the doer, discard Karma. The knowledgeable one, on the other hand, will always perform all his duties, knowing that the Jeeva is under the control of Sri Vishnu”.
  • 83-84) “In all Jeevas, there exists an inherent natural capability known as swabhava or hatha. That is the root cause of the fruition of Karma. The second reason is eternal Karma itself. The third one is the consistent efforts of the Jeeva known as paurusha. All three of these are always under the control of Sri Hari. But, Sri Hari is never under the control of anyone else. He is the best amongst the best, the Supreme One and independent”.
  • 85) “That natural ability, known as hatha, exists in a hierarchical proportion in all Jeevas starting (with the maximum) from Brahma till Kali. It is because of this swabhava or hatha that all Karmas take place. The efforts which are seeded in Karma takes place in accordance with the swabhava of the Jeeva and the eternal (anadi) Karma it possesses”.
  • 86) “If proper efforts that are in line are not made, neither inherent ability nor Karma will give results. Sri Hari is the main giver of results for all. Due to his independence he is the controller of all. Yet he always gives results by following these”.
  • 87) “It is his resolve that he shall always give results in line with these. This is the very definition of his independence. This independence never deserts him. He is omnipotent and hence there is nothing called incapability in him”.
  • 88) “Therefore one must perform the duty imposed by Sri Hari considering it to be his worship. By doing so, one obtains him. Otherwise, Naraka is certain. For a Brahmana, Japa and teaching are Swakarma”.
  • 89-92) “The Brahmana varna came into existence from the face of Sri Vishnu. Therefore, activities such as Japa and teaching, that come from the face are imposed by Sri Hari as their main duties. Kshatriyas were born from the shoulders of Sri Vishnu. Therefore, tasks such as removal of sins (punishment of sinners) and increasing noble work which are characteristics of the shoulder are their main duties. Since the face and shoulders are closely located, Sri Vishnu has mandated Japa and teaching to Kshatriyas also. Similarly, Brahmanas are also mandated to do Yajnas. Since Vaishyas came from the thighs of Sri Vishnu, their main duty is proliferation of people. Similarly, the growing of all the insentient immovable things are their duty. Since the thighs and hands are closely located, Vaishyas are in charge of communication too. It is said that the Shudras came from the feet of Sri Vishnu. Service which is mobile in nature is their main duty. Since the feet are closely associated with hands, all activities that are to be done with the hands are also their duties. Similarly, due to the closeness with the thighs, the increase of population is also their duty”.
  • 93) “Shoulders and chest are associated with strength and the heart is associated with knowledge. Therefore Kings are mandated to do both power-based and knowledge-based work. Hands are the root of skill. Therefore, since the hands are close to the thighs, and since the legs are close to the feet, Vaishyas and Shudras should possess skill in arts and crafts”.
  • 94) “This is distinct Dharma when viewed from the point of view of primary duty. Generally, all activities are Dharma for all. We, on the other hand, are Devatas. Therefore, generally for us, all tasks are Dharma”.
  • 95) “In this way, people of all Varnas should worship Sri Vishnu by performing their duties which were imposed right at the beginning of creation. Having devotion in him, as per individual capabilities, is Dharma for all. Similarly, the acquisition of knowledge as per one’s capability and his worship is Dharma for all”.
  • 96) “Sri Vishnu is the father, guru and foremost Devata – he is all. Therefore, he is worship-worthy for all. Since they are his devotees, the Devatas too are worship-worthy. Amongst them, the bigger devotees are especially worship-worthy”.
  • 97) “When Sri Vasudeva is worshipped well he grants Mukti. When he is not worshipped he gives sorrow. Since he is independent he can grant joy and sorrow. No one else is independent. All are under his control only”.
  • 98) “Since he is independent he is complete with joy, good knowledge, great power and all other auspicious attributes. Since he is independent he is also free from all defects. Only he who possesses infinite strength is independent, isn’t it?”
  • 99) “Since he is unbounded by any limits, he possesses the requisite strength to be defect free and also to be full of auspicious qualities. Therefore Sri Narayana is full of all auspicious traits and he is worthy of worship by all through the performance of their Swadharma”.
  • 100-101) “Therefore, for us too he is worthy of worship through our Swadharma. In this way, excessive compassion is not Dharma for us. We are bound by duty to destroy evil. That Kshatriya, who destroys evil forces, especially in war, while remembering Sri Hari and through the usage of his own power, such a person’s shoulders and body will be energized with spirit. If a Kshatriya destroys evil people who have become powerful due to boons, such a person’s joy in Mukti will increase”.
  • 102) “There too, they will get excess affection of Sri Vishnu. Therefore, all sinners are always to be killed. Those sinners who cheat in gambling, and those caught in war must be gotten killed by others”.
  • 103) “In war, the Kings, Princes and brothers of Kings must be killed by the King himself. If the Prince is unmarried yet, the King must not kill such a person himself”.
  • 104) “Any cruel task that is sanctioned by Dharma is to be gotten done by a Kshatriya through others. In this way, Dharma is elaborated in the Vedas. The teachings of Vishnu in the Pancharatra agama are also similar”.
  • 105) “Gambling is a sinful activity and one that involves cheating. You played the same with Shakuni. There is no scripture that mandates gambling. That which is lost in gambling is not considered as lost. Things handed over due to fear, things lost in gambling and things given to a prostitute – these are fit to be taken back by the relatives (of the one who lost it)”.
  • 106) “In this way there is an eternal Vedic injunction. Whether in gambling or that which is given to a prostitute, if the quantity is meagre, it need not be taken back. However, if it is valuable for those dependent on it, then that too can be snatched back”.
  • 107) “If the one who loses it does not have the strength to take it back, his relatives must do it for him. Therefore, we have to take back our Kingdom. Since you are a follower of Dharma and because you are my older brother, I haven’t done the same without your approval”.
  • 108) “If you permit me now, I shall slay all of them and bring back your entire Kingdom today itself. If you wish your words regarding (those) sinners to come true, then twelve months have already passed by”.
  • 109) “On the basis of the Vedas, months are to be considered as years. That is how the Vedas mandate upon humans the performance of yagas for a thousand years. Let us perform the Ajnatavasa for one month and then kill our enemies and rule the Kingdom”.
  • 110) “O King! Do not become the cause of pain for your friends. Similarly, do not become the source of comfort for your enemies. May you shine brightly on your enemies’ head. May you cause joy to your friends. May you worship Sri Vasudeva every day”.
  • 111) “O King! The independence of Sri Hari is now well established through pratyaksha – sensory perception itself. Because Sri Krishna, who is Sri Hari himself, has won against Rudra and the other Devatas and against Jarasandha and other Kings, who had the boons of Brahma and others”.
  • 112) “Through the person of Sri Vyasa, it has been seen multiple times that Sri Hari is greater than Brahma and others and also greater than Sri Mahalakshmi. Hasn’t Sri Vyasa proven to us that in the matter of all people he is independent, by virtue of granting us divine vision?”
  • 113) “Therefore O King! get ready to bear the Emperorship so that you may destroy all enemies. Due to this, you will garner immense fame and Dharma, all due to the blessings of Sri Hari”.
  • 114) When Bhimasena advised thus, Yudhisthira, the son of Dharma, assured him – “After the completion of thirteen years, I shall do exactly as you have said, without fail”.
  • 115) “This is true. Let there be no doubt. I swear on myself. Do not tell me anything more as I am wary of the world heaping blame on me”.
  • 116) “Even after I am assuring you thus, do not berate me excessively. I shall be pained. You should have ignored me then itself and killed all our enemies. Now it is not appropriate to hurt me with these words”.
  • 117) “Bhishma, Drona and the others know astras. How do we face them in battle? It is completely inappropriate to stop them through brute force, since they are all worship worthy”.
  • 118) “Although you are fully knowledgeable about astras, you will not use them anywhere. Therefore, we should go for battle only after Arjuna learns all the astras”.
  • 119) When Dharmaraja spoke thus, Bhimasena did not say anything further for fear of losing his love. His purpose had already been attained, hadn’t it?
  • 120) It was Bhima’s intention that Dharmaraja should take a vow to be ready for war at the end of thirteen years. Otherwise, due to his soft nature, he would have changed his mind about his enemies and would have given up on war. Therefore, Bhima spoke the way he did.

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