Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 1: Part 4

तदा मुक्तिश्च देवानां यदा प्रत्यक्षगो हरिः ।
स्वयोग्ययोपासनया तन्वा तद्योग्यया तथा । १.९१ ।

91 When devatas perform an appropriate (to them) Upasana of Lord Hari and when they see Lord Hari directly in a form appropriate with their direct knowledge, they obtain Mukti.

सर्वैर्गुणैर्ब्रह्मणा तु समुपास्यो हरिः सदा ।
आनन्दो ज्ञः सदात्मेति ह्युपास्यो मानुषैर्हरिः । १.९२ ।

92 Lord Hari is always worshipped with all attributes by Brahma. By humans, he is worshipped as ananda, sarvagna, sat and aatma. He is worshipped by all other devatas till Brahma with those attributes as are appropriate to their capability (yogyata).

यथाक्रमं गुणोद्रेकात्तदन्यैरा विरिञ्चतः ।
ब्रह्मत्वयोग्या ऋजवो नाम देवाः पृथग्गणाः । १.९३ ।

तैरेवाप्यं पदं तत्तु नैवान्यैः साधनैरपि ।

93 Those group of souls who are eligible for the post of Brahma are known as “Rujus”. Only they can attain the position of Brahma. Others can never obtain that position irrespective of what sadhana one performs.

एवं सर्वपदानां तु योग्याः सन्ति पृथग्गणाः । १.९४ ।

तस्मादनाद्यनन्तं हि तारतम्यं चिदात्मनाम् ।

94 In this way, there are groups of souls for every position in the hierarchy (of souls). The hierarchy of souls is thus eternal and infinite.

तच्च नैवान्यथा कर्तुं शक्यं केनापि कुत्रचित् । १.९५ ।
अयोग्यमिच्छन् पुरुषः पतत्येव न सं शयः ।

95 No one is capable of modifying this hierarchy. One who desires to obtain a position not appropriate to his position will surely fall; there is no doubt about this.

तस्माद्योग्यानुसारेण सेव्यो विष्णुः सदैव हि । १.९६ ।
अच्छिद्रसेवनाच्चैव निष्कामत्वाच्च योग्यतः ।
द्रष्टुं शक्यो हरिः सर्वैर्नान्यथा तु कथञ्चन । १.९७ ।

96-97 Therefore, everyone should always worship Lord Vishnu according to their yogyata. With meditation that is without any break and karma that is nishkama and according to one’s yogyata, everyone can see Lord Hari according to their own yogyata. His direct knowledge cannot be had with any other means.

नियमोऽयं हरेर्यस्मान्नोल्लङ्घ्यः सर्वचेतनैः ।
सत्यसङ्कल्पतो विष्णुर्नान्यथा च करिष्यति । १.९८ ।

98 Since this is the rule of Lord Hari, it can never be violated by any of the souls, ever. And since He Himself is always true to His own rules, neither will He change these rules.

दानतीर्थतपोयज्ञपूर्वाः सर्वेऽपि सर्वदा ।
अङ्गानि हरिसेवायां भक्तिस्त्वेका विमुक्तये” ।
भविष्यत्पर्ववचनमित्येतदखिलं परम् । १.९९ ।

99 Donation, theertha yatra, tapas, yagna and other such means are the ways to perform constant meditation and devotion of Lord Hari; Bhakti alone is the main tool to obtain Mukti; These excellent sentences are all from the excellent source called Bhavishyat Parva.

“ण्सृण्वे वीर उग्रमुग्रं दमायन्नन्यमन्यमतिनेनीयमानः ।
एधमानद्विल्. उभयस्य राजा चोष्कूयते विश इन्द्रो मनुष्यान् । १.१०० ।

100 “Shrunve veera ugramugram damaayannanyamanyamatineniyamaanah edhamaanadvilubhayasya raajaa choshkooyate visha indro manushyaan” (Rigveda)

परा पूर्वेषां सख्या वृणक्ति वितर्तुराणो अपरेभिरेति ।
अनानुभूतीरवधून्वानः पूर्वीरिन्द्रः शरदस्तर्तरीति”२१ । १.१०१ ।

101 “Paraa poorveshaam sakhyaa vrunakti vitarturaano aparebhireti. anaanubhooteeravadhoonvaanah poorveerindrah sharadastartareeti” (Rigveda)

“तमेवं विद्वानमृत इह भवति नान्यः पन्था अयनाय विद्यते” ।
“तमेव विदित्वाऽति मृत्युमेति नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय” । १.१०२ ।

102 “Tamevam vidvaanamruta iha bhavati naanyah panthaa ayanaaya vidyate” (Taittareeya aranyaka). “Tamevam viditvaaatimrutyumeti naanyah panthaa vidyate ayanaaya” (Shvetaashvataropanishat).

“यस्य देवे परा भक्तिर्यथादेवे तथा गुरौ ।
तस्यैते कथिता ह्यर्थाः प्रकाण्सन्ते महात्मनः ” २४ । १.१०३ ।

103 “Yasya deve paraa bhaktiryathaa deve tathaa gurou. Tasmaite kathitaa hyarthaah prakaashante mahaatmanah” (Shvetaashvataropanishat).

“भक्त्यर्थान्यखिलान्येव भक्तिर्मोक्षाय केवला ।
मुक्तानामपि भक्तिर्हि नित्यानन्दस्वरूपिणी । १.१०४ ।

104 Everything else is only for bhakti; bhakti is only meant for Moksha; Even in the liberated, bhakti, as an eternal and constant bliss, does exist.

ज्ञानपूर्वः परः स्नेहो नित्यो भक्तिरितीर्यते” ।
इत्यादि वेदवचनं साधनप्रविधायकम् । १.१०५ ।

105 Bhakti means friendship which is accompanied by knowledge and intensity and firmness. These and other veda vakyas reveal these methods.

“निश्शेषधर्मकर्ताऽप्यभक्तस्ते नरके हरे ।
सदा तिष्ठति भक्तश्चेद्ब्रह्महाऽपि विमुच्यते” । १.१०६ ।

106 “O Lord Hari! A person who does not have devotion in you will always stay in naraka even if he performs all his duties without fail. A person who is your devotee will obtain liberation even if he commits a Brahma Hatya”.

“धर्मो भवत्यधर्मोऽपि कृतो भक्तैस्तवाऽच्युत ।
पापं भवति धर्मोऽपि यो न भक्तैः कृतो हरे” । १.१०७ ।

107 “O Lord Achyuta! Even the adharma performed by your devotees becomes dharma. O Lord Hari! Even the dharma performed by those who aren’t your devotees becomes adharma”.

“भक्त्या त्वनन्यया ण्सक्य अहमेवं विधोऽर्जुन ।
ज्ञातुं द्रष्टुं च तत्त्वेन प्रवेष्टुं च परन्तप”२५ । १.१०८ ।

108 “O Parantapa! Arjuna! Only with this sort of unmatched devotion can I be known appropriately, can I be seen and entered into” (Bhagavadagita).

“अनादिद्वेषिणो दैत्या विष्णौ द्वेषो विवर्धितः ।
तमस्यन्धे पातयति दैत्यानन्ते विनिश्चयात् । १.१०९ ।

109 Daityas are eternal haters of Lord Vishnu. Their hatred for Vishnu keeps especially increasing and such hatred will eventually land them in Tamas.

पूर्णदुःखात्मको द्वेषः सोऽनन्तो ह्यवतिष्ठते ।
पतितानां तमस्यन्धे निः शेषसुखवर्जिते । १.११० ।

110 Those who fall into Tamas, where there is not even a trace of happiness, will always have complete ignorance and pain filled hatred towards Him.

जीवाभेदो निर्गुणत्वमपूर्णगुणता तथा ।
साम्याधिक्ये तदन्येषां भेदस्तद्गत एव च । १.१११ ।

111 The knowledge (belief) of non-difference between Paramatma and Jeevas; the knowledge of Paramatma having no attributes; the knowledge of Him having incomplete attributes; equating Paramatma with others; knowledge that others are higher than Him; knowledge of difference in His various forms and attributes and actions (contd)

प्रादुर्भावविपर्यासस्तद्भक्तद्वेष एव च ।
तत्प्रमाणस्य निन्दा च द्वेषा एतेऽखिला मताः । १.११२ ।

112 The knowledge of birth and death for Him in His avataras; the hatred of His devotees; the condemnation of all those knowledge sources which proclaim His supremacy; knowledgeable people term these as the nine forms of hatred.

एतैर्विहीना या भक्तिः सा भक्तिरिति निश्चिता ।
अनादिभक्तिर्देवानां क्रमाद्वृद्धिं गतैव सा । १.११३ ।

113 It is certain that devotion without any of these nine hatreds is true devotion. Devatas have such devotion since always and their devotion keeps increasing.

अपरोक्षदृशेर्हेतुर्मुक्तिहेतुश्च सा पुनः ।
सैवाऽनन्दस्वरूपेण नित्या मुक्तेषु तिष्ठति । १.११४ ।

114 (that increased devotion) Leads them to direct knowledge and then increases further to be a cause for their Mukti. In Mukti, they always have devotion embedded in their bliss.

यथा ण्सौक्ल्यादिकं रूपं गोर्भवत्येव सर्वदा ।
सुखज्ञानादिकं रूपमेवं भक्तेर्न चान्यथा । १.११५ ।

115 Just like how whiteness is always an attribute attached with the nature of the cow, similarly happiness and knowledge are always in the nature of devotion; not in any other way.

भक्त्यैव तुष्टिमभ्येति विष्णुर्नान्येन केनचित् ।
स एव मुक्तिदाता च भक्तिस्तत्रैककारणम् । १.११६ ।

116 Lord Vishnu gets pleased only with devotion and not anything else. He, truly, is the giver of Mukti; and devotion towards Him is the true instrument to achieve Mukti.

ब्रह्मादीनां च मुक्तानां तारतम्ये तु कारणम् ।
तारतम्यस्थिताऽनादिनित्या भक्तिर्न चेतरत् । १.११७ ।

117 This devotion is the reason behind the hierarchy amongst Brahma and others and also amongst the liberated; This exists in the hierarchy since eternity and is perpetual; Devotion is the reason for the hierarchy and not anything else.

मानुषेष्वधमाः किञ्चिद्द्वेषयुक्ताः सदा हरौ ।
दुःखनिष्ठास्ततस्तेऽपि नित्यमेव न सं शयः । १.११८ ।

118 The lowest ones amongst humans will always have at least a little hatred towards Lord Vishnu. Therefore, they are always filled with sorrow; there is no doubt about this.

मध्यमा मिश्रभूतत्वान्नित्यं मिश्रफलाः स्मृताः ।
किञ्चिद्भक्तियुता नित्यमुत्तमास्तेन मोक्षिणः । १.११९ ।

119 The madhyamas (average) amongst humans will always possess doubts over truths such as the supremacy of Lord Vishnu; they will therefore obtain results which are a mix of happiness and sorrow. The best amongst humans will always have at least a little devotion towards Him and therefore will obtain Moksha.

ब्रह्मणः परमा भक्तिः सर्वेभ्यः परमस्ततः ” ।
इत्यादीनि च वाक्यानि पुराणेषु पृथक्पृथक् । १.१२० ।

120 The bhakti that Brahma has is always the best and highest amongst all Jivas. These and other such statements have come in Puranas again and again.

“षण्णवत्यङ्गुलो यस्तु न्यग्रोधपरिमण्डलः ।
सप्तपादश्चतुर्हस्तो द्वात्रिं शल्लक्षणैर्युतः ।
असं शयः सं शयच्छिद्गुरुरुक्तो मनीषिभिः । १.१२१ ।
तस्माद्ब्रह्मा गुरुर्मुख्यः सर्वेषामेव सर्वदा ।
अन्येऽपि स्वात्मनो मुख्याः क्रमाद्गुरव ईरिताः । १.१२२ ।

121, 122 The one who possesses height of 96 angulas, waist size of 48 angulas, length of 7 feet and 32 lakshanas; one who has no doubts regarding the truth; one who clears the questions of knowledge seekers; he is referred to as a ‘Guru’ by the knowledgeable. Therefore, Brahma is always the main Guru for all. Similarly, all those who are better than an individual are all known as Gurus for that person.

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